Thursday, August 27, 2020

Monitoring and evaluation free essay sample

This paper tries to clarify checking and assessment and why they are a critical viewpoint in any undertaking or plan. It features the reasons they have gotten so generally acknowledged, utilized and examined being developed arranging. Observing and assessment effectively brings data to the cutting edge and making changes in the current arrangement of conveyance and intending to guarantee results just if significant contemplations are made. There are numerous angles engaged with the assessment and checking of an extend and none can be overlooked on the off chance that we are to guarantee a compelling and pertinent evaluation.2 Definition of terms2.1 MonitoringIs a procedure of ceaseless and intermittent reconnaissance of the physical usage of a program, through convenient social occasion of efficient data on work plans, inputs, conveyance, directed yields, and different factors of the program, so as to have the ideal impacts and effect. 2.2 EvaluationIs characterized as a procedure to decide (as methodicallly and impartially as could be expected under the circumstances) the degree to which program needs and results have been or are being accomplished, and investigate the explanations behind any inconsistency. We will compose a custom exposition test on Observing and assessment or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page 3 IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION4 PURPOSES (AND USES) OF MONITORING AND EVALUATIONMonitoring and assessment is utilized for an assortment of purposes. The reason for which it is utilized decides the specific direction of every assessment. ME might be utilized for the accompanying fundamental purposes:4.1 Management Decision-MakingME frameworks increase administrative procedures and give proof to dynamic. The inquiry that ought to be posed is whether the nature of the ME data gave is fitting and how well it takes care of into existing administrative procedures. ME can never supplant great administration rehearses; rather it enlarges and supplements the board. A few instances of ME utilized in this setting are choices on asset allotment, decisions between contending techniques to accomplish a similar target, strategy choices, and choices on program structure and usage. The exactness of data and the way wherein it is introduced gotten basic for supporting administration in their dynamic processes.4.2 Organizational learningThis is the most testing result for ME, as it surmises that ME results and discoveries help to make learning associations. In any case, making an interpretation of discoveries into learnings challenges even the most advanced of associations. ME is likewise an examination apparatus to investigate what program structure, or answer for cultural issues, will work best and why, and what program plan and operational procedures will make the best an incentive for cash. ME ought to give the examination and proof to do the exchange offs between different elective methodologies. The data accumulated ought to be converted into scientific, activity situated reports that encourage successful choice making4.3 . AccountabilityPublic authorities have a sacred commitment to record to Parliament. They ought to be comprehensively responsible for how they go through open cash, how they have accomplished the reasons for which the cash has been casted a ballot and that they have approached their obligations with a serious extent of honesty. ME gives the data, in an organized and formalized way, which permits examination of open assistance exercises at all levels. This motivation behind ME may represent the discernment that ME is policing. Regardless of the worries that many have that one ought not seek after ME just with the end goal of responsibility, as it might make doubt and a culture of dread, when managing open supports responsibility is fundamentally significant. Responsibility is administered by the Constitution and enactment, for example, the Public Finance Management Act, is upheld by organizations, for example, the Auditor-General and the Public Service Commission, and inability to hold fast to meeting responsibility prerequisites is regularly met by sanction.4.4 Promoting transparencyOne of the most enticing uses for ME, if its discoveries are made accessible to a more extensive crowd, is that it advances straightforwardness, and through this encourages dynamic and responsibility. ME requires a readiness to be exposed to investigation, as discoveries might be distributed and made accessible to people in general

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How to Write a Conclusion For a Persuasive Essay

How to Write a Conclusion For a Persuasive EssayWhen you are done with your persuasive essay, how do you wrap up your presentation and offer a conclusion that will persuade your reader? That is the question we will address in this article. You should start your conclusion by making sure you put all the information in your essay that is relevant and important to the audience. Start by reviewing the material that you have provided in the body of the essay.Don't forget to close with an interesting conclusion that will convince the reader to continue reading the rest of your article. Make sure the conclusion you write follows the logic of the essay. Don't make it too long and too confusing because then your reader will lose interest in your piece. If your conclusion is too long, readers will probably skip your conclusion and move on to the next article.There are several ways you can conclude your essay. You can use a story or quote to close your essay. A story or quote will help your rea der connect with your thesis and will show that you have a story to tell. The story can be a personal one, a lesson you learned in school, or even something that happened to you recently.If you do not have an effective way to close your essay, you can also conclude the essay using the power of a photo. A photo is a good way to end your essay if you need to convey a message to your reader. If you are writing about something interesting and relatable to the reader, they will relate to your words and ideas better than if you are writing about a hard task or goal that you have achieved.End your essay with a vivid photo or illustration. This is the best way to end your persuasive essay. You may not want to end the article with a picture, however, because it will look too clinical. If you are writing about something that is fresh and exciting, you can provide a photo to make the conclusion more interesting and memorable.To conclude your essay effectively, you should make your conclusion v ery compelling. If you do not do this, then your reader will most likely skip over your conclusion and move on to the next article. To make your conclusion more compelling, you should use your critical thinking skills to help you develop a persuasive conclusion.Using your critical thinking skills will help you come up with a conclusion that you can easily convey to your reader. First, you need to get the real facts. Write down everything you know about the topic that is not opinion. Be specific, but don't be vague or you will leave your reader wondering what you are really trying to communicate.Finally, you must be confident about your conclusion before you write your persuasive essay. If you are not confident in your conclusion, then you will need to rewrite the conclusion until you are confident in the conclusion you have written.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Freshman Essay Topics - Choose the Best Topic For Your Freshman Textbook

Freshman Essay Topics - Choose the Best Topic For Your Freshman TextbookFreshman essay topics are all about the basics of college life and therefore vary in the type of material that is required. Any topic will require some serious research but there are some general ideas that most topics will have.One great topic for a first topic will be about your interests or passions. Of course, you will want to let everyone know what you like to do on a daily basis but being able to relate your topic to other things will help readers understand what your interests might be. This will ensure that they get the information they need and also give them an idea of what kind of person you might be.The next topic is your character. What are the qualities that make you different from others? What makes you confident and successful at your school? Finally, what makes you feel alone and outcast?Freshman essay topics can also be about the end result of your academic experiences. In fact, it will be up to you to define this as a number of essays that I have read indicate that it can be really difficult to do. It seems to boil down to defining what you achieved and how you felt about the school in general when you were completing your work.Another important topic would be class performance or a particular set of students' performance. Most students will relate their experiences with a particular class, which could mean that it is a class that helped them grow as a person.Freshman essay topics are also about the aspects of life that you will be experiencing such as your financial situation, marriage or family issues, or even issues that affect you in your personal life. How will these aspects of your life affect your academics? These are the areas that many essays address as a matter of fact.Last, you should consider doing as much research into these topics as possible so that you do not waste your time writing and rewriting the same topic every time. While writing can be fun and exci ting, it can also be quite monotonous, especially if the topic you are assigned has been around for quite some time.Always have a good idea of what will appeal to you in your topic because it will influence the choices you make when you are researching. Make sure that your topic has a fresh and original flavor that can appeal to a wide audience.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

A Critical Discourse Analysis ( Cda ) And Argumentation...

The current empirical study constitutes a critical discourse analysis of part of the discourse that surrounds the New Caledonian independence issue. It aims to explore audience response to political speeches, to investigate how politicians attempt to persuade people to follow a particular course of action, to link the notions of discourse and action to the cognitive dimensions of ideology and presuppositions, to further clarify various contextual factors, such as power configurations, to describe possible semantic oppositions in the debate and to demonstrate the use of shared knowledge as a rhetorical tool. To this purpose, the project has introduced an interdisciplinary, pragma-functional approach to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), combining Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and argumentation theory. Various French excerpts from across a relatively wide variety of genres and registers were analysed, thereby investigating salient lexical and grammatical patterns, as well as any significant inferences. It will be explained further on how this dialogical exchange of views may lead to a clash between highly divergent discourse communities instead of a desired consensus, due to prevalent power asymmetries, and an attempt will be made to resolve this communication failure. In this chapter, the main focus of the study will be made explicit and a rationale for the chosen linguistic approach will be provided. Then, the discourse samples that were included in the studyShow MoreRelatedNew Caoleia Case Study997 Words   |  4 PagesThe study has adopted a novel approach to CDA by using linguistic tools such as Systemic Functional Grammar and Pragma-Dialectics, as well as insights from postcolonialism and poststructuralism to explore the impact of power and ideology on language use and social or political practice in the New Caledonian decolonisation process. Not only was linguistic evidence adduced to show how the French dominant powers employ a common destiny rhetoric to manipulate the other groups into accepting that NewRead MoreSample Of Application Essay1099 Words   |  5 Pagesstudents in the department. A keen interest in linguistics led me to study Hallidayan and Argumentation theory, which I combined into a pragma-functional approach to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) by integrating Systemic Functional Linguistics, Pragma-dialectics, postcolonial and poststructuralist theory into an innovative, interdisciplinary mixed methods framework for the analysis of plurilogical (French) discourse. As such, my research ties in with the University of Sydney’s broader research fieldRead MoreExample Research: Critical Discourse Analysis9514 Words   |  39 Pages18 Critical Discourse Analysis TEUN A. VAN DIJK 0 Introduction: What Is Critical Discourse Analysis? Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. With such dissident research, critical discourse analysts take explicit position, and thus want to understand, expose, and ultimately resist social inequality

Friday, May 15, 2020

Providence Health And Services Organization - 2136 Words

Providence Health Services was established over 158 years ago, in 1856, when Mother Joseph of the Sacred Heart and four other Sisters of Providence arrived in the state of Washington and answered the call for help in a new pioneer community. The community was newly established and had no schools, hospitals, or other institutions of care, and the people were struggling to survive. In 1959 the sisters included their charity works into their mission, creating the network of healthcare services we know today. Providence is the second oldest non-profit healthcare organization in Washington (Providence Health Services, 2014). Providence’s mission statement is, â€Å"As people of Providence, we reveal God’s love for all, especially the sick and vulnerable, through our compassionate service.† And their vision is â€Å"Together, we answer the call of every person we serve: Know me, care for me ease my way.† (Providence Health Services, 2014, para. 1). Through God’s love anything is possible, and caring for the sick and vulnerable is a powerful mission. Going hand in hand with their mission and vision, Providence’s core values are â€Å"Compassion, Justice, Respect, Excellence, and Stewardship† (Providence Health Services, 2014, para. 3). Providence’s mission, vision, and core values are based on the faith of the founding sisters. The sisters of Providence aimed to help the poor and vulnerable and provide them with health. Despite their own hardships, the sisters worked hard to provideShow MoreRelatedTransformational Leadership : Transformational And Transactional Leadership1468 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the online Oxford Dictionary, leadership is â€Å"the action of leading a group of people or an organization.† But what makes someone a leader? To put is simply, a leader is someone that motivates and inspires those around them to achieve a common goal or vision. That may sound fairly simple, but not everyone is a leader. And there are several different leadership styles to consider. The two most common styles are transformational and transactional leadership. Transformational leadershipRead MoreProvidence Health Care Was Established By Sisters Of St.1664 Words   |  7 PagesProvidence Health Care was established by Sisters of St. Joseph’s in 1857 in Toronto with the motto to look after the needs of poor, ill, homeless and physically incompetent people. Josie Walsh was appointed as its President and Chief Executive Officer. The article illustrates how the value based leadership has driven change and innovation for the future and betterment of an organization. Josie Walsh, joined Providence as Vice-President and Chief Nurse Executive in 2001. She held a Master’s degreeRead MoreThe High Quality Of Health Care1133 Words   |  5 PagesThe average quality of health care in the U.S. is significantly more inaccessible than in other developed countries. The U.S. in aggregate spends significantly more on its healthcare industry, relative to other developed nations, and yet not all Americans have access to adequate health care services. In the present essay I compare the healthcare system in France with the U.S. system in regard to the Triple Aim framework (improving quality of care, improving the health of populations, and reducingRead MoreA Lack Of Psychiatric Or Psychological Evaluations Underpin The Concerns Made By Those Against Odwda Essay1419 Words   |  6 Pagesillness has been considered a requirement of ODWDA. Oregon’s collected data on Oregon psychiatrics and psychologists suggest that they do not show proper objectivi ty towards assisted suicide (Fenn Ganzini, 1999). Despite the argument that those mental health professionals that are not in favor of the act, Oregon does not want any form of coercion in either direction. Due to the fact that physicians may opt out of process, a patient may have to seek out a doctor willing to discuss an assisted suicideRead MoreThe Providence Center988 Words   |  4 Pagesthe human resources/compensation specialist at a non-profit community mental health agency, The Providence Center, in Providence, the largest city in Rhode Island. This individual is the head of recruiting, hiring, training, compensating and personnel for all of the departments within this facility and works with/collaborates with the management of each of the departments/programs within this facility. The Providence Center is at the front of innovative steps to behavioral healthcare structuredRead MoreThe Health Care Delivery System854 Words   |  4 PagesThe health care delivery system can be overwhelming, but compare it to another country, this can make it more confusing. Let’s look further into Americas health care delivery system and let take a look into the health care delivery system of Canada. I have always found Canada fascinating. I hope to understand how they run their health care and maybe what can we do to our health care to improve it? Canada s health care system, is a group of socialized health insurance plans that provides coverageRead MoreNursing Experience Working With Communities And Populations1503 Words   |  7 Pagescommunity health clinic in Belize. The other is my current job as a Heart Failure (HF) RN Navigator at Providence Centralia Hospital. These experiences have helped me see firsthand the many factors that influence the health of communities. They have also revealed many of the challenges faced by nurses and other health professionals who work to improve the health of populations. Many factors impact the health of a community. Obvious factors include those related to health and social services, such asRead MoreYakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic1401 Words   |  6 PagesClinic (YVFWC) is a non-profit organization that continues to look to grow within the lower valley community and the outer rural areas within the Pacific Northwest. Most of the competitive YVFWC has to deal with are hospitals like Prosser Memorial, Sunnyside Community Hospital, Toppenish Community Hospital, Our Lady of Lourdes, Walla Walla General (Providence Health Services), Trios Health, Good Shepard, and Kadlec Regional Medical Center (Providence Health Services). These are just a handle fullRead MoreTransformational Change : Change Acceleration Process At Providence Health And Services Alaska1840 Words   |  8 PagesAcceleration Process at Providence Health Services Alaska 1. Introduction Changes in healthcare are irreversible. The concerns relate for many years without any resolution sought. The driving change for Providence Health System at Alaska with the expansion and the evolution in the current processes brought about a considerable change linked to the servicing of the community needs. The number of employees linked to Providence Health System (Providence Health Services, 2016) being close to 3000Read MoreThe Electronic Medical Record ( Emr )2104 Words   |  9 PagesCHELSEA BEGIN Providence not only strives for a great experience with their customers but also with their caregivers. The main focus for Providence at this time for their caregivers is improving their experience by; more emphasis on development, using technology to ease their way; improving the performance review conversation and aligning performance and development. Along with improving their experience, Providence has a lot of lean projects that are helping to standardize how things are done

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Code Of Ethical Code Violation Essay - 1843 Words

Introduction Ethical code violation is printed information that can assist people in an organization or a group to understand between what is wrong and what it right in which later they can use this documented information in making decisions. Having three levels of code of conduct, one of them focusing on how those who are professionals are suppose to approach issues or problems while the other two deals with employee and how business is supposed to be operating. In case of violation of these codes of ethics as an auditor you need in the first place to have all relevant documents relating to the violated codes and do the investigation as required by law then give your honest and factual information about the issue, and then hand it over to the relevant authorities. This can be done only because the violation of these codes exists in normal life. having in mind that this violation exists let us and as an auditor let us check, give response and see how some of the auditors who neglect important iss ues can be dwelt within the following situations (Whittington, 2014). 3-31 Ron Barber, CPA, is auditing the financial statements of DGF, Inc., a publicly held company. During the course of the audit, Barber discovered that DGF has been making illegal bribes to foreign government officials to obtain business, and he reported the matter to senior management and the board of directors of DGF. Required: a If management and the board of directors takeShow MoreRelatedEthical Issues Associated Within The Clinical Counseling Profession Essay1580 Words   |  7 Pagesencompasses ethical issues associated within the Clinical counseling profession. There will be at least four of the nine sections of the ACA Code of Ethics that will be covered within the context of this case. In consideration of each of these ethical breaches there will be dialog on the nature of the ethical issue or violation, where the ACA ethical code applies, ramifications of the ethical issue or violation of both parties, and with supplementary support of Kitchener?s five primary ethical principlesRead MoreCode of Ethics for a Fictional Company1466 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Code of Ethics for Fictional Company I. Objective The objective of this study is to create a code of ethics for a fictional company. Included will be Guiding Principles and a stated Purpose of the Code along with Core Values, Training and Education, Definitions, the employees that are covered under this code of ethics, how it will be implemented and communicated as well as enforced and reported. II. Introduction The fictional company in this study is a home health care agency that sends outRead MoreComparing Codes of Ethics Essays895 Words   |  4 PagesComparing Codes of Ethics The American Counseling Association and the American Mental Health Counselors Association Codes of Ethics both provide guidance and direction in making ethical decisions for their members (ACA, 2005) (AMHCA, 2010). Both the ACA and the AMHCA Codes of Ethics cover a wide range of moral and ethical situations that could present themselves to mental health professionals. Both of these codes of ethics have significant impacts on the counseling profession. The tools providedRead MoreThe Importance Of Ethics And Professionalism At Aaa Colorado1282 Words   |  6 Pagesmembers. Objectives and Desired Outcomes Accountable - Ethical reviews account for laws and regulations - Stakeholders maintain - Accountability requirements are defined Empowering - Stakeholders’ input valued in overall guidance - Top-down communication of ethical governance Informed - Change oriented processes are responded to in a timely manner - Consistent Decision Making - Ethical standards are conveyed to all stakeholders Fair - IndependentRead MoreEthical Implications Of Ethical Consumerism1552 Words   |  7 Pages â€Æ' 1.0 Ethical Consumerism 1.1 Definition The term Ethical consumerism, means that more customers prefer to purchase goods that are obtained ethically, made ethically and distributed ethically. According to Jacqueline Payne (2012), â€Å"An ethical consumer is someone who buys things that are produced ethically. Depending on the context, ethical production may mean producing something that is recycled, using labour that is produced in facilities without the use of slavery and child labour, or processingRead MoreClinical Supervision in Counseling Essay1266 Words   |  6 Pagessupervision. When confronted with difficult ethical decision making and unique situations in its best to gain an outside objective viewpoints. In reference to the case study, there are plenty of ethical dilemmas and unethical decisions made by Joe and his supervisor. It is clear their personal values differ from those who choose to follow ethical codes in counseling. The APA and ACA’s ethical standards and codes have certain relations in comparison to the violations which Joe and his supervisor have perpetratedRead MoreDeveloping A Code Of Ethics1056 Words   |  5 PagesDeveloping a code of ethics Assignment: Develop a global code of ethics that integrates and demonstrates respect for the diverse groups that you do business with, such as the nations of India, the United Arab Emirates, and Japan. Your code of ethics should be 2 - 3 pages in length, with each code explained in detail. Be sure outline within the code how behaviors will be enforced. The code should also be supported by a 1 - 2 page summary outlining the importance of the behaviors selected. CompanyRead MoreCode of Ethics for Business1508 Words   |  7 PagesCode of Ethics Company A is committed to providing expertise management consulting to nonprofit organizations that serve and meet the needs of citizens and communities. This Code of Ethics sets forth standards of behavior for our employees and managers. It is intended to assist them in fulfilling their duties and public representation of Company A. Employee Standards The success of Company A depends on our clients and their confidence in our services. We need to value that nonprofits are supportedRead MoreHrtc s Code Of Ethics Essay1083 Words   |  5 Pages HRTC’s Code of Ethics The trust that our clients, communities and our people place in HRTC’s are high standards of ethical behavior. Our Code of ethics guides us, no matter where we are or what we do. It s how we do business. Our Code of Conduct reflects the significant changes in our world, the very nature of our work and how we do business. We are trusted professionals that understand how to continue to behave ethically in all business affairs. That Code is our tools thatRead More Codes of Ethics in Health Care Essay995 Words   |  4 PagesEthical Codes are in use today by many organizations to clearly establish their values and provide a procedure if a code violation occurs. Medical ethics began as a professional code for physicians and has now expanded and includes a variety of health care professions and health care organizations. The growth of medical knowledge and technology have grown so have the concerns that ethical standards and issues facing our society today may be com promised or not appropriately addressed (Littleton

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mobile Phone Local and Global Dimensions

Question: Discuss about the Mobile Phone for Local and Global Dimensions. Answer: Introduction The purpose of the paper is to focus on the concepts related to the global and the local connections to the mobile phone. There are two important aspects which need to be considered. (Fortunati, 2005). 1) How the mobile phones can handle the penetration with the locally fixed dimensions that have been taking place with variant designing by the users. 2) How the spatial perception of the technology is changing over time, with qualitative and quantitative research. Demonstration of the Production, Distribution and Consumption In Melbourne, it has been seen that the mobile phones are considered to be the primary requirement for the people. The mobile phone is associated to the sedentariness where the dimensions are critical for being global. The current understanding is for a mobile phone to be more global than local as it will help in connection to the local calls quickly. The globalism of the mobile phones is based on the remains with fully uncovering the nearness to understand the meaning of the spaces.(Castells, 2002). In Melbourne, the manufacturing has the global dimensions, where the trend is to create an app store for the different components of the hardware that people can easily create, design and sell anywhere depending upon the customization of the mobile phones. The internet and the global connectivity are allowed for the globalized participants, where the facilitation is based on allowing for the constitutional standards with open dialogue. The system is set with the sedentary use of the mobile to track the movement, mobility, commuting and the traveling. (Benitz, 2006). It also includes the use of how the mobile phones have been able to compete with the landline. In Melbourne, the distribution and the consumption are depending upon the requirement and the satisfaction of the customer. The global mobile phone has been segmented under the products with the headphones, charger, memory card or the battery or power band. (Agar, 2013). Hence, the market could easily be segmented with the change in the price range into the premium, mid and the lower distribution channels which are set into the multi-brand store. The sub-segments are in the organized store and the independent stores. For maintaining a strong distribution channel in Melbourne, there is a need for a secure network in the emerging markets of China, Brazil, Indonesia, and Russia. This will help the key providers to create a multi-brand distribution and retailers to better cater to the customers. With the expansion of the urban population as per the Melbourne statistics 54% of the population in the world has been covered in the urban areas in 2014, which has been characterized by the upper class to handle the high net worth of the individuals. It also leads to the stronger demands based on advancement in the accessories of mobile like premium headphones and the power banks. (Himberg et al., 2001). As per the research, it has been seen that the women are likely to perceive the details from the mobile phones in a significant manner where the indication is to the telephone call that is being near. As per the analysis, the space adjusting technologies and the time-space convergence has been set for the semantic differential nations so that the research could easily be done by indicating the local dimensions as well. The internet and the mobile phones are considered to be global where the disentangling of the data for the different countries tend to turn out based on the responden ts and the sense of the globalism of the mobile phones. The shift is from the global and local axis with technical elements that have been set for the active implementation of reinforcement and the connection to the internet. Conclusion The local and the global events are related to the development of the technological levels, infrastructure and the services which are not entirely relevant to the Melbourne context. Hence, in the economic sphere, the products are necessary for business or the revenue streams. (Donner, 2008). With the applications of the ICT design for the user, the patterns of use are based on inventing the functions and the services for the future development. There has been the transformation with the person-place convergence which is necessary for the spatial extension to handle the individualized place with conditioning and discipline the elements of the mobile communication. Reference Fortunati, L., 2005. The mobile phone: local and global dimensions.A sense of place. The global and the local in mobile communication, pp.61-70. Castells, M., 2002. Local and global: cities in the network society.Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie,93(5), pp.548-558. Benitez, J.L., 2006. Transnational dimensions of the digital divide among Salvadoran immigrants in the Washington DC metropolitan area.Global Networks,6(2), pp.181-199. Agar, J., 2013.Constant touch: A global history of the mobile phone. Icon Books Ltd. Himberg, J., Korpiaho, K., Mannila, H., Tikanmaki, J. and Toivonen, H.T., 2001. Time series segmentation for context recognition in mobile devices. InData Mining, 2001. ICDM 2001, Proceedings IEEE International Conference on(pp. 203-210). IEEE. Donner, J., 2008. Research approaches to mobile use in the developing world: A review of the literature.The information society,24(3), pp.140-159.